Premenstrual Syndrome and its Management
Introduction to PMS:
Premenstrual syndrome is abbreviated as PMS or premenstrual tension abbreviated as PMS. This constitute group of symptoms that include physical, emotional and mental issues faced by women almost a week before menstrual cycles and gradually normalize when menstruation begins. The occurrence of these symptoms is mostly observed among young adolescents around the time of puberty and throughout women of child bearing age. Almost 85% of these women experience first the physical disorder during their menstrual cycles. Most of the physical symptoms of this syndrome are thought to appear related to the ovulation.
What are sign and symptoms of Premenstrual syndrome?
Premenstrual syndrome is reported by women just before menstruation and includes:
- Features of volume overload like bloating,
- Fullness and tenderness of breasts
- Abdominal cramps that may be mild in some but in a few women it may be severe enough to warrant medication to control symptoms.
- Mood changes that ranges from anxious to aggressive or depressed.
- Changes in bowel habits like constipation or diarrhea
- Headache, depression, sadness and food cravings are some other features of premenstrual syndrome.
- Change in the pattern and rhythm of sleep.
According to medically defined limits of premenstrual syndrome, there is a consistent pattern of physical and emotional symptoms. These symptoms are noted down to occur during specific phases of the menstrual cycle. Also the pattern of occurrence of these events and disorders is also consistent.
Management of Premenstrual Syndrome:
Although in most women, no medication or therapy is needed as these are minor physiologic changes. However, a few features of premenstrual syndrome are actually unbearable and warrant some sort of therapy. This mainly includes emotional problems and premenstrual pain associated with premenstrual syndrome.
Treatment and management of the physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome can be done in many ways.
- First of all the diet and lifestyle should be changed and healthy foods should be added in diet.
- In addition to this supportive therapies have also been suggested including evaluation, reassurance and counseling.
- In addition to this addition of calcium supplements in diet also controls the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome to a great extent.
- Another very effective way of management of the premenstrual syndrome is the pharmacologic medication to relieve pain.
- In addition to this aerobic exercise is also found to be very helpful in preventing and controlling the premenstrual syndrome.
As long as emotional problems are concerned, mainly behavioral therapy is sufficient. Following may help women to get rid of their emotional problems:
- Taking a good night sleep and keeping yourself busy with some activity.
- Avoiding sugar and caffeinated beverages as these excites brain cells and aggravate mood changes.
- You can start using Vitamin supplements especially like Vitamin B6 and folic acid.
- If your symptoms are not controlled by simple modifications, you can always start Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) after seeking advice from your physician. There are a few preparation of SSRI that are designed especially to control the symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome.